Newton's Diffraction Experiments
and their Historical and Philosophical Consequences
(c) nieke
By Nieke was shown that Fresnel's alleged proof of wave based on an inadmissible and wrong extrapolation of the formula of diffraction at slit to the distance nought. For it the proof of Newton for the transition of inner to outer diffractionfringes and the localization of bent light was disregarded, which is the key for understanding diffraction; and not the two borderline cases of Fresnel with the inadmissible and wrong extrapolation above this transition. Then this was accepted only for Newton with punctiform lightparticles could not explain diffraction with his mechanics. So from 1850 in textbooks diffraction were described by Fresnel with waves as sole possibility. Newton's diffraction experiments were intercepted and therefore was introduced a simplistic and mislead theory. Also after discovery of lightelectric effect at beginning of our century nothing was changed at this and the dualism of wave and particle was deduced.
Bohr had built up his quantumtheory with the Copenhageninterpretation on the dualism of wave and particle, which he connected with the indeterminism at quantumprocesses, out of the indescriptness were deduced. Against this Einstein offered contraction, but he did not consider Newton's diffraction experiments, so he could not found his opinion. Also if he had considered this, he not could have offer an alternative.
First after 1960 was possible an alternative, where the structure of elementary particles was discovered; but this did not happen, because to this time HeisenbergBohr's quantumtheory was accepted.
In part I of his paper the historical conclusions are considered which are caused by nonconsideration of Newton's diffraction experiments. In part II the philosophic arguments are considered which are caused by the same reason
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Heisenberg deduced for structure of photon the formal model: side by side laying fermion and antifermion with spin and antispin. Consequently here is considered the photon with structure, and the spin not as spinquantumnumber but as spin rotation or descriptive vortexaggregate.
Analogous to Heisenberg is accepted as structure of photon the structure of electromagnetic vortexpair. Diffraction is founded by interaction of photon with its field according vortexdynamics.
 Newton's Diffraction Experiments and their Historical and Philosophical Consequences
 Newton's Diffraction Experiments and their Historical and Philosophical Consequences
