Newton's and Fresnel's Diffraction Experiments

The Continuation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Diffraction of Light at Slit and Hindrance

Interference-Angle Condition, Diffraction and Imagery

Diffraction One After Another and with Intermediate Imagery

Diminishing of Frequency of Light after Diffraction

Inner and Outer Diffraction-Fringes at Circular Openings

Superposition of Interference and Diffraction

Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous Illumination

Experiments with Polarized Light at Slit and Double-Slit

The Background of Diffraction-Figures

Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Photons out of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of that of Photons

The Thermally Conditioned Electromagnetic Field

Diffraction and Light-Emission of Electrons

Energy-Steps of Electrons in Magnetic Eigen-Field

Faraday's Electro-tonic States

Near-Field Optics with Regard to Newton's Diffraction-Experiments

Consideration of Magnetic Moment of Electron in Quantum Theories

Light in Deterministic and Synergetic Processes


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Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous Illumination


With coloured and one-coloured inhomogeneous illumination is shown its influence on diffraction-figure. In the sphere of inner diffraction-fringes of slit, therefore in short distances, the localization of bent light is easily to demonstrate. In the sphere of outer diffraction-fringes of slit, therefore in large distances, interpretation is limited by the double cover with bent light of the surroundings of both slit-edges.
Figure 1. Experimental arrangement for coloured inhomogeneous illumination. L - light-source, a high-pressure mercury lamp; C -condenser; FS -first illumination-slit; IS - second illumination-slit 0.15 ... 0.3 mm; Pr - prism, crown glass 10...30; S - diffraction-slit 0.3 mm; F - incident plane, a photo-plate. a = 1 m, b = 120...400 mm, c = 0.25...4 m

Figure 2. Illumination with mercury-light, blue at one edge and green at the other edge of the diffraction-slit S, with arrangement of figure 1. Distance c even so that outer fringes originated but no mixture disturbed.

Figure 3. Illumination of diffraction-slit S with a continuous spectrum, in figure 1. Also distance c even so large that no mixture disturbed.

Figure 4. Diffraction-figure at one-coloured inhomogeneous illumination. Experimental arrangement figure 1, but without prism Pr and with green filter. IS = 0.15 mm, b = 100 mm, c = 2 m.
a: diffraction-figure without diffraction-slit S;
b: slit-edges S (0.6 mm) in the first minima of the diffraction-figure of the illumination-slit IS;
c: diffraction-slit S contracted on the half (0.3 mm);
d: diffraction-slit S so displaced that a minimum of the diffraction-figure of IS drops on one edge and the maximum of zeroth order on the other edge.
Above every diffraction-figure the position of the diffraction-slit is indicated.


As already Newton [1] had asserted, it is possible to demonstrate the localization of bent light in the sphere of inner diffraction-fringes at the slit. In the sphere of outer diffraction-fringes only in distances after first origin of outer diffraction-fringes locality is demonstrable. In larger distances the double cover of diffraction- figures with shadow- and light-side bent light prevent examinations. In Fraunhofer's manner of observation the illumination-slit is imaged at the observation-plane, and so in the focal-plane no coloured inhomogeneous illumination is demonstrable. Outside this plane a split-up is present and here an observation was possible.
The limits of this method were already directed in section 1. Everyone who has ever tried to produce a real symmetrical diffraction-photo knows what a high adjust-expenditure is necessary obtaining a 'homogenous illumination' . Who never tried this may inspect the sources of figures of diffraction-figures. Also authors, who else produced themselves all figures, often took over diffraction-photos of strange sources. Of course, they have experienced the difficulties but they did not direct on this for in theory of wave-fronts no difficulties should be present. We know at present that light consists out of light-quanta or photons, and therefore deviations are explicable.


[1] I. Newton, Opticks or a Treatises of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. London 1704; Opera quae. exstant omnis, Tom IV, London 1782; Reprint, Bruxelles 1966; Optik II + III. Übers. W. Abendroth, Ostwald's Klassiker Nr. 97, Engelmann, Leipzig, 1898; Neuauflage Bd. 96/97 Vieweg, Braunschweig 1983; Optique, Trad. J. P. Marat 1787; Bourgois, Paris 1989.
[2] H. Nieke, Newtons Beugungsexperimente und ihre Weiter- führung. Halle 1997, Comp. Print 1, Arbeit 1. (Vorhanden in vielen deutschen Universitätsbibliotheken); Newton's Diffraction Experiments and their Continuation. Halle 1997, Comp. Print 3, paper 1. (Applicable in some university libraries).
[3] As [2], paper 2.
[4] As [2], paper 3.
[5] As [2], paper 4.
[6] A. Fresnel, Oeuvre Complétes I. Paris 1866. Abhandlungen über die Beugung des Lichtes. Ostwalds Klassiker Nr. 215, Engelmann Leipzig 1926.
[7] T. Young, A course of lectures on natural philosophy and mechanical arts. London 1807.




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