Newton's and Fresnel's Diffraction Experiments

The Continuation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Diffraction of Light at Slit and Hindrance

Interference-Angle Condition, Diffraction and Imagery

Diffraction One After Another and with Intermediate Imagery

Diminishing of Frequency of Light after Diffraction

Inner and Outer Diffraction-Fringes at Circular Openings

Superposition of Interference and Diffraction

Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous Illumination

Experiments with Polarized Light at Slit and Double-Slit

The Background of Diffraction-Figures

Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Photons out of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of that of Photons

The Thermally Conditioned Electromagnetic Field

Diffraction and Light-Emission of Electrons

Energy-Steps of Electrons in Magnetic Eigen-Field

Faraday's Electro-tonic States

Near-Field Optics with Regard to Newton's Diffraction-Experiments

Consideration of Magnetic Moment of Electron in Quantum Theories

Light in Deterministic and Synergetic Processes


| german| impressum | zurück | feedback | home |  


Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of that of Photons


Nieke inferred the structure of photons as electromagnetic vortex-pairs from Newton's diffraction experiments and from the statement for structure of photons by Heisenberg. The possibility of pair-formation and positron annihilation demands an electromagnetic vortex-twin for the structure of electrons; it gives the right symmetry of electron. So positrons have the same structure, only the direction of rotation of vortices is opposite. Pauli's principle is commented to be corrected: + and - is valid for direction of rotation and not for antiparallel direction of electrons. So the b-emission could be described in a new way.



The here developed models of photon and electron allow and requires a completion of interpretation of many physical appearances with electrons and photons.
It is presupposed as known that super-conductivity and super-fluidity can be successfully described with vortex-dynamics. Thomson [36] and Heaviside [37] attempted to interpret the inertia of charged particles with self-induction according Lenz's principle. With the field of charge that conducted to no positive result. With the field of the charges and magnetic moments producing fields this could be attempted again. Opposite to Thomson and Heaviside, this principle is also to transfer to altogether uncharged particles.
Then the behaviour according to the theory of special relativity could be based on changed returning movements of the charge producing fields by interaction of particles with itself, that is with its field. Einstein [38] asked (translated): "Should not be the basis-quality of matter, the inertia, be to interpret field-theoretically?"


[1] H. Nieke, Newtons Beugungsexperimente und ihre Weiterführung. Halle 1997, Comp. Print 1, Arbeit 12. (vorhanden in vielen deutschen Universitätsbibliotheken). Newton's Diffraction Experiments and their Continuation. Halle 1997, comp. print 2, paper 12. (Available in some university libraries).
[2] As [1], paper 13
[3] A. Sommerfeld, Vorlesungen über theoretische Physik, Bd. II, Mechanik der deformierbaren Medien. Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig 1945, S. 155
[4] K. Winter, Phys. Bl. 49 (1993) 621
[5] H. Schopper, Materie und Antimaterie, München 1969.
[6] H. Genz, Naturwiss. 82 (1995) 170
[7] As [1], paper 6
[8] H.Dehmelt, Science 247 (1990) 539
[9] W.Pauli, Aufsätze und Vorträge über Physik und Erkenntnistheorie. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1961, S. 120-146 (Nobel-Vortrag 1946); Z. Physik 31 (1925) 373, 765. Collected and Selected Papers. New York 1964.
[10] G. E. Uhlenbeck u. S. Goudsmith, Naturwiss. 13 (1925) 953.
[11] J. Frenkel, Z. Physik 37 (1926) 243; 47 (1928) 786.
[12] As [9], S. 155.
[13] H. Schopper, Phil. Mag. 2 (1957) 720
[14] J. Keßler, Phys. Bl. 38 (1982) 31; 48 (1992) 1013.
[15] F. Scheck, in: Physics at KAON, Proceedings Bad Honnef 1989, Springer Berlin a. o. 1990; Z. Phys. C, Part. a. Fields 46 (1990) 73
[16] A. H. Lorentz, Theory of Elektrons. Leipzig 1916; In: Enzyklop. d. math. Wiss. Bd. 5, T 2 S. 145-188, Teubner, Leipzig 1904-1922.
[17] J. Stark, Die Physik der Atomoberfläche. Hirzel, Leipzig 1940.
[18] W. M. Hicks, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 192 (1899) 33.
[19] W. Kossel, Valenzkräfte und Röntgenspektren. Springer, Berlin 1924, S.11 u. 49.
[20] P. A. M. Dirac, Die Prinzipien der Quantenmechanik. Hirzel, Leipzig 1930; The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. Clarendon Press Oxford 1935,1947, 1958. Reported in: A. Sommerfeld: Atombau und Spektrallinien II. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1960, S. 209-341. Atomic Struture and Spectral Lines. Matuse, London 1923,1940. Atomic Structure and Spectallines. Methuse, London 1923. 1930, 1934.
[21] O. Wiener, Abh. math.-nat. Kl. Sächs. Akad. 38 (1921) No IV; Ber. mat.-nat. Kl. Sächs. Akad. 75 (1923) 132; 76 (1924) 170.
[22] L. de Broglie, Théorie géneral des particules á spin (méthode de fusion). Paris 1943.
[23] M. Born a. H. W. Peng, Nature 153 (1944) 164.
[24] H. Jehle, Phys. Rev (3) D 11 (1975) 2147.
[25] D. L. Pekeris, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 72 (1975) 2037.
[26] J. P. Dahl, Math. Fys. Med. Vid. Selsk. 39 (1977) No 12.
[27] L. P. Hugston, Twistor and Particles. Lecture notes in physics, Bd. 97, Springer, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, New York 1979, S.102.
[28] G. Mack a. V. B. Petkova, Ann. Phys. (New York) 125 (1980) 117.
[29] H. Hönl, Erg. ex. Naturwiss. 26 (1952) 291
[30] E. Schrödinger, Sitzungsber. Preuß. Akad. Berlin, math.- phys. Kl. (1930) 422
[31] F.Bopp, Naturwiss. Rundschau 35 (1982) 236.
[32] H. Harari, Sci. Am. (USA) 248 (1983) NR. 4, p. 48; Spectrum d. Wiss. (1983) Juni S. 54.
[33] M. Pavsic, E. Recami, W. A. Rodrigues, Jr, G. D. Maccarrone, F. Raciti a. G. Salesi, Physics Letters, B (Amsterdam) 318 (1993 ) 481.
[34] A. Hautot, Physics Essays (Canada) 6 (1993) 152.
[35] J. Wasserman, Specul. Sc. Techn. 15 (1992) 221.
[36] J. J. Thomson, Phil. Mag. (5) 11 (1881) 229; 28 (1889) 1.
[37] O. Heaviside, Phil. Mag. (5) 27 (1889) 324.
[38] A. Einstein, Out of my later years. Phil. Lib., New York 1950; Aus meinen späten Tagen. D. Verl.-Anst. Stuttgart 1979, S. 112.




   © 2006 by tediamedia •