Newton's and Fresnel's Diffraction Experiments

The Continuation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Diffraction of Light at Slit and Hindrance

Interference-Angle Condition, Diffraction and Imagery

Diffraction One After Another and with Intermediate Imagery

Diminishing of Frequency of Light after Diffraction

Inner and Outer Diffraction-Fringes at Circular Openings

Superposition of Interference and Diffraction

Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous Illumination

Experiments with Polarized Light at Slit and Double-Slit

The Background of Diffraction-Figures

Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Photons out of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of that of Photons

The Thermally Conditioned Electromagnetic Field

Diffraction and Light-Emission of Electrons

Energy-Steps of Electrons in Magnetic Eigen-Field

Faraday's Electro-tonic States

Near-Field Optics with Regard to Newton's Diffraction-Experiments

Consideration of Magnetic Moment of Electron in Quantum Theories

Light in Deterministic and Synergetic Processes


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Energy-Steps of Electrons in Magnetic Eigen-Field


The electron with its magnetic moment is shown as magnetic moment-sheet circulating round the nucleus. The Lorentz-force yields a force opposite to electrical attraction. This force stabilizes the path of electron and can cause the energy-steps of electron if the field of electron returns with right phase. Bohr could not consider the magnetic moment of electron because it was not yet discovered. When it was discovered, he had hasty committed himself that the atom is classic not calculable. The magnetic moment of the electron is not interpreted as magnetic dipole or virtual monopole but as magnetic 'vortex-propelling' which generates the magnetic vortex-field.



The radius of electrons rE was calculated out of push- and scattering-experiments. The magnetic moment of electrons was determined by the Stern-Gerlach effect in an inhomogen magnetic-field; that is valid as a reliable value. The radius of hydrogen rH was found in similar size with thermodynamic methods.
The calculation show that self-interaction by magnetic field of magnetic moment of electron in union with Lorentz-force and returning field can effect the different steps or levels of electrons. For the field has to return with right phase, so result periodical states. The periodicity and with it the energy-steps are resulting out of structure of electron, sort of motion and the velocity of electron round the nucleus
Here is to quote Popper [11] (translated): "In so far the causal-meta-physics is in their results many more fruitfully than an indeterministic meta-physics, as advocated by Heisenberg, we see indeed that Heisenberg's formulations have affected lamely on research. Our examination let to recognize that even obvious connections will be disregarded, if us is hammered in always that the search for such connections were 'senseless'."
By Nieke [5] was quoted Stark as a defender of the annular electron. There and also here the annular electron was not confirmed, but several magnetic moment-sheets presume no more that every electron has to revolve round the atom-nucleus as centre. In symmetrical arrangement is also possible a position outside the magnetic moment-sheets. So the tetrahedral positions of electrons in carbon, as Stark supposed, are no more to exclude. The magnetic moment-sheets of the four valence-electrons of carbon can be so arranged indeed. The estimation of Kossel, that for this is necessary a new force, can be confirmed. The new force is here presented as consideration of magnetic moment of electrons, interaction of eigen-field and Lorentz-force.
Therefore for electrons is not to assume a dipole with north and south pole but for magnetic moment is to assume a magnetic vortex propelling. By Nieke [5] the electron has the structure of electromagnetic vortex twin and this had to generate magnetic vortex propelling and charge. Ever direction of rotation the charge is positive or negative. This introuction could be describable with a combined and extended vortex- and electro-dynamics.


[1] A. Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien. Bd. I, Vieweg, Braunschweig 1960, 2. Kap. 4, S. 92. Atomic Structure and Spectral Lines. Methuse, London 1923, 1930, 1934.
[2] Ed. A. Hermann, A. Einstein und A. Sommerfeld: Briefwechsel. Stuttgart 1968.
[3] H. Nieke, Newtons Beugungsexperimente und ihre Weiterführung. Halle 1997, Comp. Print 1, Arbeit 12. (vorhanden in vielen deutschen Universitätsbibliotheken); Newton's Diffraction Experiments and their Continuation. Halle 1997, comp. print 2, paper 12. (Available in some university libraries).
[4] As [3], paper 13.
[5] As [3], paper 14.
[6] As [3], paper 16.
[7] As [1], Bd. II, S. 280.
[8] F. Chew, Science 161 (1968) 160; Physics Today 23 (1970) 23.
[9] E. Schrödinger, Preuß. Akad. Wiss. Berlin mat.-nat. Kl. (1930) 462.
[10] H. Hertz, Ann. Physik (III) 36 (1889) 1; Ges. Werke, Bd. 1. Barth, Leipzig 1892. Electric waves. Transl. D. E. Jones, Macmillan, London 1893.
[11] K. Popper, Logik der Forschung. 9. Aufl. Mohr, Tübingen 989, S. 196. Hrsg. E. Botcher: Die Einheit der Gesellschaftswiss. Bd. 4; The Logic of scientific discovery. (1935); 2nd Ed. London, New York: Basic Books 1959.




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