Newton's and Fresnel's Diffraction Experiments The Continuation of Newton's Diffraction
Experiments Diffraction of Light at Slit and Hindrance InterferenceAngle Condition, Diffraction and
Imagery Diffraction One After Another and with
Intermediate Imagery Diminishing of Frequency of Light after
Diffraction Inner and Outer DiffractionFringes at
Circular Openings Superposition of Interference and Diffraction Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous
Illumination Experiments with Polarized Light at Slit and
DoubleSlit The Background of DiffractionFigures Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction
Experiments Consequences for Photons out of Newton's
Diffraction Experiments Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of
that of Photons The Thermally Conditioned Electromagnetic Field Diffraction and LightEmission of Electrons EnergySteps of Electrons in Magnetic EigenField Faraday's Electrotonic States NearField Optics with Regard to Newton's
DiffractionExperiments Consideration of Magnetic Moment of Electron
in Quantum Theories 

Diffraction and LightEmission of Electrons
Already Newton had proved in his diffraction experiments that light never can be a wave and he excluded indeterminism. For establishment of diffraction is offered the photon with structure and its field their interaction causes a change of direction by hindered field with use of vortexdynamics. This is transferable on other particles by consideration that at photons determine their frequency the diffractionfigure and at other particles their velocity. If electrons change their velocity or direction, then can be tied off fieldlines analogous Hertz's dipole emission, and then photons can be emitted. .....DiscussionsIn the discussion between Bohr and Einstein was considered Bohr as victor. But Einstein could prove his refuse opinion against the dualism of wave and particle (Einstein [31]: fusion of wave and particle) and indeterminism (Einstein [32]: God does not dice) to HeisenbergBohr's quantumtheory if he had recognise the importance of Newton's diffraction experiments. Moreover, Einstein [33] 1934 had written a foreword to Newton's optics, but the third book had obviously devoted no attention to him. Newton had not put out the observations 5 and 10 for he could not foresee Fresnel's simplifications or suppressions. Also he did not use his diffraction experiments for interpretation of nature of light. Einstein had to experiment in order to find Fresnel's inadmissible and wrong extrapolation with help of Newton's observation 5 and 10. But at that time he could not give an alternative. This was possible first about 1960 after acknowledgement of structure of elementaryparticles. Already Broglie introduced with the photon with the guidancewave, what Born corrected in guidancefield, the possibility of selfinteraction (but he did not term it so). However, now it is possible to carry on the opinion of Einstein. The optimism to this already Laue [34] had given, when he wrote (translated): " ... For the author shines no smaller the difficulties to unit jointly particle and waveintroductions for the same object. ... But the necessary unity of both introductions remains moreover an unrealised demand to the theory. One do not say this difficulty were invincible on principle. In an interpretation of every experiment is involved already theory." This theory here resulted only from suppression of Newton's diffraction experiments. References[1] I. Newton, Opticks, or a Treatise of the Reflexion, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. London 1704; Opera qua exstant omnis, Tom IV. London 1782; Optics. Reprint, Bruxelles 1966; Optik II + III, Übers. W. Abendroth, Ostwald's Klassiker Nr.97. Engelmann, Leipzig 1898. Neuauflage Bd. 96/97, Vieweg, Braunsschweig 1983; Optique, Trac. J. P. Marat 1787; Reproduction Bourgois, Paris 1989. [2] A. J. Fresnel, Oeuvres Complétes I. Paris 1866; Abhandlungen über die Beugung des Lichtes. Ostwalds KIassiker Nr. 215, Engelmann, Leipzig 1926. [3] H. Nieke, Newtons Beugungsexperimente und ihre Weiterführung. Halle 1997, Comp. Print 1, Arbeit 1; (Vorhanden in vielen deutschen Universitätsbibliotheken) Newton's Diffraction Experiments and their Continuation. Halle 1997, comp. print 2, paper 1. (Available in some university libraries). [4] N. Bohr, Atomphysik und menschliche Erkenntnis I u. II. die Wissenschaft Bd. 112 u. 123, Vieweg, Braunschweig 1958 u. 1966. Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Wiley, New York 1958. [5] As [3], paper 12. [6] A. Sommerfeld, Vorlesungen über theoretische Physik, Bd. II, Mechanik der deformierbaren Medien. Akad. Verlagsges. Leipzig 1945, S. 153  156. [7] A. Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien. Bd. II. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1960. Gleichungen (I.1.5) und (I.6.9a); Atomic Structure and Spectral Lines. Methuse, London 1923, 1930, 1934. Equations (I.1.5) and (I.6.9a). [8] A. O. Barut, Z. Naturforsch. 32 a (1977) 362. [9] L. de Broglie, La Physique quantique resteratelle indéterministe? GauthierVillars, Paris 1953; Phys. Bl. 9 (1953) 486, 541. [10] As [3], paper 14. [11] E. Mach, Die Prinzipien der physikalischen Optik. Barth, Leipzig 1921, S. 185  226. The Principles of Physical Optics. New York 1926. [12] H. Boersch, Naturwis. 28 (1940) 711. [13] J. Hiller a. E. Ramberg, J. Appl. Phys. 18 (1947) 48. [14] C. Malange a. J. Gronkowski, phys. stat. sol. (a) 85 (1984) 389. [15] As [3], paper 6. [16] M. Laue, Materiewellen und ihre Interferenzen. Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig 1948. [17] J. M. Cowley, Diffraction Physics. NorthHolland, Amsterdam, NewYork, Oxford 1981. [18] D. Bohm: Phys. Rev. 85 (1952) 160; 87 (1952) 389. [19] F. Chew, Science 161 (1968) 762; Physics Today 23 (1970) 23. [20] H. A. Lorentz, In: Encyclopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften. V. Band, 2. Teil, Teubner, Leipzig 1904  1922. S. 188. [21] P. M. A. Dirac, Die Prinzipien der Quantenmechanik. Hirzel, Leipzig 1930 S. 14; The Principles of Quantum Mechanis. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1935, 1947, 1958. [22] As [3], paper 5. [23] H. Hönl, Erg. ex. Naturwissenschaften 26 (1952) 291, Zitate S. 297, 335, 347, 351, 293. [24] C. S. Adams, Contemp. Phys. 35 (1994) 1. [25] Y. Aharonov a. D. Bohm, Phys. Rev. 115 (1959) 485. [26] Y. Imry a. R. A. Webb, Sc. Am. (USA) 1989 April 36; Spectr. Wiss. 1989 Juni 88. [27] W. Duane, Proc. Nat. Sci. Wash. 9 (1923) 158. [28] A. Landé, Ann. Physik (7) 33 (1976) 88. [29] Hertz, Ann. Physik (III) 36 (1889) 1; Ges. Werke Bd. II, Barth, Leipzig 1892, S. 147. Electric waves. Transl. D. E.Jones, Macmillan, London 1893. [30] As [3], paper 13. [31] A. Einstein, Phys. Z. 18 (1917) 121. [32] M. Born: Albert Einstein  Hedwig  Max Born  Briefwechsel. Nymphenburger, München 1969, S. 118, 226. The Born  Einstein Letters. Walker, New York 1971. [33] As [1], Reprint from the fourth edition 1730 (with a Foreword by Albert Einstein and an Introduction by Sir E. T. Whittaker) 1934. [34] As [16], S. 401.


© 2006 by tediamedia • info@gebeugteslicht.de 