Newton's and Fresnel's Diffraction Experiments

The Continuation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Diffraction of Light at Slit and Hindrance

Interference-Angle Condition, Diffraction and Imagery

Diffraction One After Another and with Intermediate Imagery

Diminishing of Frequency of Light after Diffraction

Inner and Outer Diffraction-Fringes at Circular Openings

Superposition of Interference and Diffraction

Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous Illumination

Experiments with Polarized Light at Slit and Double-Slit

The Background of Diffraction-Figures

Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Photons out of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of that of Photons

The Thermally Conditioned Electromagnetic Field

Diffraction and Light-Emission of Electrons

Energy-Steps of Electrons in Magnetic Eigen-Field

Faraday's Electro-tonic States

Near-Field Optics with Regard to Newton's Diffraction-Experiments

Consideration of Magnetic Moment of Electron in Quantum Theories

Light in Deterministic and Synergetic Processes


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Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments


With combination of Heisenberg's structure of photons, Dirac's interference of photon with itself, Broglie's guidance-field, and Sommerfeld's unconscious proof that the Schrödinger-equation can be a formula of vortex-dynamics, a work-hypothesis for diffraction is formed. With interaction of photons with structure of electromagnetic vortex pairs and its field is tried to establish the diffraction as change of direction as result of hindered returning field according vortex-dynamics. With it Newton's diffraction experiments are explicable and the usual inadmissible and wrong extrapolation on the slit-plane is superfluous.


Interpretation of the experiments with photons with structure

From the photon started running an electromagnetic field. The photon forms a source and for the field runs back to its photon it is also a sink for the own field. For field has the effect of a phase so it could exceed or underlie the velocity of light. The field of photon is a part of photon. If field is hindered asymmetrically so that it can not return or only retarded, the photon executed a swinging according equation (2) till it is again symmetrized. As alteration of direction and not as extinction this could correspond to Young's or Huygens-Fresnel's principle. Here the interaction of photon with its field could cause diffraction.
The diffraction at the triangular-slit, reported by Nieke [3], is to describe: Is to the photon, which passed near the edge, only asymmetrical field returned which passed near the edge, so the photon has only information of the near edge and executed that turn or swing which belongs to this disturbance of symmetry. This should give the inner diffraction-fringes of slit which corresponds to the diffraction-figure of half-plane at this edge. If on the farther way parts of field, which passed the other half of slit, returned to the photon so gets the photon information of the whole slit and executes a turn or swing which belongs to the outer diffraction-fringes of slit.
The results in the schlieren-apparatus by Nieke [4] directed to the origin of bent photons, for all photons which are not sufficiently bent are masked by schlieren-diaphragma. In Abbe's schlieren-apparatus the slit is imaged as double-stripes with a dark strip at the places of edges. The breadth of one double-stripe was maximal 0.1 mm and is dependent of the aperture of objective for imaging. In the schlieren-apparatus takes place an imagery of slit with bent light, at which this light is rectilinearly to follow backward. So for shadow-sided bent photons a shadow-sided displacing is to suppose for they can not come from the slit-jaws as shown by Nieke [3], [4] and [5]. This displacing would be conditioned first by hinder of field by the edge and then by returning of field-parts which passed the edge in some distance.
If in diffraction one after another by Nieke [7] the photons were not again symmetrized for not all the field is returned, so the photons react differently on the following diffraction for they react still on missing or returning field of the first diffraction.
At masking of one image in the image of double-slit by Nieke [7] not only returned the field of single slit but also field which passed the other single slit. If the field run a sufficient long way (order dm) between double-slit and imaging optic, then the photon has got information of both slits of double-slit. No more diffraction-fringes of the masked single-slit image are to see but diffraction-fringes of double-slit.
Nieke [8] showed that light has partial a diminishing frequency after diffraction what is demonstrable with small slit-widths. If a part of the field of a photon can not return to the photon, so a diminishing of frequency or energy is self-evident if the field is a part of photon.
Not self-evident shines that in great distances light-side diffracted light behave as the shadow-sided bent light: It run into the same order as shown in the masking-experiments of Nieke [4]. Because the field of photons have passed the whole slit, this symmetry is understandable. This was finally the statement of Young which caused him to Young's principle, even if he supposed falsely that bent light goes out only from edges.
Carnal a. Mlynek [42] reported that also atoms and elementary-particles show diffraction. Because uncontested atoms have a structure so it should be possible to explain diffraction by their structure.
The interference of photon with itself by Dirac [43] should have found an obvious interpretation by interaction of photon with its field. If this field is asymmetrically hindered so can result a deflection and therefore a diffraction. Also the demand of Einstein [15] for a fusion of wave and particle is fulfilled with it.
The capitulation of Feynman [12]: "Give we up" prolonged only the life-time of the inadmissible and wrong extrapolation and their taking over by Bohr in the Copenhagen interpretation. Not to capitulate brought in this paper a new interpretation of diffraction.


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