Newton's and Fresnel's Diffraction Experiments

The Continuation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Diffraction of Light at Slit and Hindrance

Interference-Angle Condition, Diffraction and Imagery

Diffraction One After Another and with Intermediate Imagery

Diminishing of Frequency of Light after Diffraction

Inner and Outer Diffraction-Fringes at Circular Openings

Superposition of Interference and Diffraction

Diffraction Experiments with Inhomogeneous Illumination

Experiments with Polarized Light at Slit and Double-Slit

The Background of Diffraction-Figures

Trial for Interpretation of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Photons out of Newton's Diffraction Experiments

Consequences for Structure of Electrons out of that of Photons

The Thermally Conditioned Electromagnetic Field

Diffraction and Light-Emission of Electrons

Energy-Steps of Electrons in Magnetic Eigen-Field

Faraday's Electro-tonic States

Near-Field Optics with Regard to Newton's Diffraction-Experiments

Consideration of Magnetic Moment of Electron in Quantum Theories

Light in Deterministic and Synergetic Processes


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Interference-Angle Condition, Diffraction and Imagery


The so called coherence-condition contains a geometrical relation, where the angle to (conventionally) light-source has to be smaller than to interval of diffraction-fringes. Here an action of order of radiation does not exist, therefore the name interference-angle condition is offered. In Fraunhofer's manner of observation also inner diffraction-fringes of slit appears outside the focal-plane. At parallel incident light in distance of double focal length with and without optics the same diffraction figures with inner and outer fringes arise, only the figure is inverted with optics. Interference-angle condition and Abbe's theory of imagery complete one another in microscopic imagery.

Figure 1. Schematic drawing of light-source and double-slit for derivation of the coherence-condition. L - light-source of the extend X; S - double-slit with the spacing d; P - photoplate with the first diffraction maximum in the spacing Y; Θ - half aperture-angle; α -diffraction-angle..

Figure 2. The positions of the maxima of inner and outer diffraction-fringes between single and double focal-length. 135 mm - single focal-length, 270 mm - double focal-length, ο maxima of inner fringes, • - outer- fringes. The outermost appearances of inner diffraction-fringes mark the shadow - limit.

Figure 3. Photometer-curves or diffraction-figures of a slit with a width of 0.6 mm. Illumination-slit 0.001 mm, tessar f' = 135 mm as collimator. a: without farther optics in 140 mm distance, b: with a lens f' = 140 mm in 140 mm distance.

Figure 4. Diffraction-figure of the triangular-slit in double focal-length. A super-pressure mercury-lamp HBO 100 with green-filter and condenser that illuminated a hole-diaphragm 0.1 mm, in 1 m distance stood a lens f' = 1 m, behind that a triangular-slit 0 . . .3 mm that was so parallel illuminated. Behind: a: Tessar 1 : 2.8, f'= 50 mm, diffraction-figure in 100 mm distance, b: Objective removed, diffraction-figure in 100 mm distance.
Figure 5. As figure 4. a: Tessar 1:4.5, f'= 135 mm, diffraction-figure in 270 mm distance, b: Objective removed, diffraction-figure in 270 mm.
Figure 6. As figure 4. a: Achromat 1 : 8, ft = 320 mm, diffraction-figure in 640 mm distance. b: Objective removed, diffraction-figure in 640 mm distance.


The analogy to water-waves suggested former to accept light with order-states or phase-relations. Already Maxwell [30] considered light electro-magnetic disturbance, but he calculated also with waves. With help of interference-angle condition could be shown that there the wave-interpretation of the so called coherence-condition never was necessary for it is explicable pure geometrically.
At diffraction with imagery is to respect that inner and outer diffraction-fringes of slit show another dependence of distance. As generally known grow intervals of outer fringes linear with distance, photons run here rectilinearly. Differently there are the dependence of the inner fringes of slit or diffraction-fringes of the half-plane. Here Fresnel [19] found experimentally an other behaviour.
It will do to consider parallel incident light, where intervals of diffraction-fringes grow only with the root of distance (more exactly by Nieke [24]). Newton [20] concluded out of transition from inner to outer fringes at triangular-slits that light-particle have to run eel-like. By Nieke [22], [23] and [24] the shadow-side bent light is displaced shadow-side for it seams to come from the slit-jaw, photons have to run in an S-curve. So it is sure that diffraction and imagery are to describe differently by inner and outer diffraction-fringes. In section 5 are described special-cases.
Panarella [31] examined the non-linearity of photo-multipliers at smallest intensity. He used the diffraction-figure of a small hole-diaphragm and he found their fringes blurred by smallest intensity. He diminished the intensity of light with neutral-density-filters that are so arranged in optical-path that they could reduce the interference-angle-condition as result of scattering in this filter. Here-upon could hint the blurred fringes. Jeffers, Wadlinger and Hunter [32] confirmed this result with a small slit instead hole-diaphragm, but they used the same apparatus with diminishing by density-filters. Therefore here is to prove that this was no effect of reducing of interference-angle condition.


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[31] E. Panarella, Speculations Sci. Techn. 8 (1985) 35.
[32] S. Jeffers, R. Wadlinger a. G, Hunter, Can. J. Phys. 69 (1991) 1471.




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